When disruption of sensory and motor pathways of central nervous system causes dizziness, vertigo, lightheadedness, and gait impairments, individualized balance rehabilitation and training can be effective treatments. Often times the methods of testing balance control can be used as therapy as well. Balance training in conjunction with exercises that target specific brain structures can improve overall brain function. Balance boards, balance platforms, and balance balls are utilized to increase activation of the cerebellum which control postures, combined head and eye movements, and core stability. Balance therapy may be made more effective in combination with other complex movement patterns such as ball throwing/catching, or extremity coordination exercises to target cortical and cerebellar brain structures. A variety of gait and balance training protocols are implemented to promote proper movement patterns and reflexes that are necessary for optimal human function.